Deer-Resistant Plants and Trees That Are Edible

Up until very recently, deer have never been a great concern of mine, at least not in terms of gardening. I’d seen beds suffer at the spurs of the neighbors’ chickens, watched my wife running out of the greenhouses with her arms waving, mouth like a G-rated sailor. Once in Belize, we’d left a fenced garden for a couple of weeks only to return and learn that an agouti (you know, a smaller version of a gibnut) had stripped bare all the squash plants that had taken off. At Caoba Farms, gophers were prone to gnawing away at the roots of citrus and mulberry trees. In other words, I knew wild animals could be a challenge for gardeners. After a short time in North Carolina, I experienced deer.

After her retirement from teaching, my mother has moved to Brevard, North Carolina, into a house somewhat in the forest, and deer are most definitely a regular feature. Most mornings consist of multiple sightings as they forage through the back garden and through the strips of forests between houses before we’ve even finished the first cup of coffee. Seeing this, and having heard several warnings about deer eating crops, it was apparent that they would be an issue with regards to growing anything edible, so my wife Emma and I checked out some lists of deer-resistant plants.

Being ever in the mindset of functionality, we then took that list of deer-resistant plants and formulated an approach for growing in an edible garden where deer would regularly meander through. My mother only owns a small parcel of land, not a quarter of a hectare, and—it’s a good thing—she’d rather see the deer than grow cabbage. In other words, there are severe limits as to what can be grown without bother. She bought a few small flower bushes to try to include with the following list, and the next morning, she watched from the window as a doe ate every last bloom. So, it goes.

A List of Edible Deer-Resistant Plants

Leeks (Courtesy of Christopher Aloi)

Here are some of the plants we discovered work well in this area, which is to say USDA Zone 6 in the mountainous side of a coastal state with plenty of rain. For my mother’s situation—some small “flower” beds near the front porch—we were in search of fairly small and attractive plants that wouldn’t require a lot of attention but might provide her with a little forage for the kitchen.

1. The Onion Family (Alliums)

The onion family, of course, features onions, and it also includes chives, leeks, and garlic. They, as much of the rest of this list, are noted for having a strong smell and flavor, something that seems to turn the deer off.

2. Aromatic Culinary Herbs

Culinary herbs are yet another strong smelling group of plants with quite bold flavors. Deer aren’t into that, so they—sage, oregano, rosemary, thyme, dill, marjoram, mint, etc.—are generally considered something rarely damaged by these browsers. Basil is a little less offensive to them.

3. Artichokes

Artichokes are a great plant for a permaculture garden as they fall into the prestigious perennial group of vegetables. Bees absolutely love the flowers, but deer don’t see them the same way. The flowers are a bit too spiky for grazing.

4. Lavender

Though lavender is sometimes, in fancier crowds, used as a culinary herb, more often it is appreciated for its calming aroma, which has given it a good reputation in soaps and candles. Deer don’t dig it, which is to say they don’t eat it.

5. Nightshades

The nightshades, a group that includes potatoes, tomatoes, peppers and eggplants, are considered to be deadly, which is to say that animals who pay attention to such things don’t go for them…often. The jury is still out, as sometimes accidents do happen, and morning forages might leave potato or tomato plants completely leafless.

6. Rhubarb

Rhubarb looks surprisingly delicious with its alluringly bright stems and luscious leaves, but in reality, only the stems are edible. The leaves, in fact, are poisonous. For us permaculturists, it is yet another perennial addition to the gardens, and for those of us dealing with deer, it is yet another that will go largely unscathed.

A List of Edible Deer-Resistant Trees

Ginkgo Biloba (Courtesy of djpmapleferryman)

Though my mother isn’t in the tree-planting game (her house is amongst an existing forest), research definitely brought about some tree options, and because Emma and I are in the tree-planting game, it was most definitely some potentially useful information for us. Thus, it seemed worth sharing. Some other trees, such as date palms and olives are said to be deer-resistant, but they are not really in our wheelhouse of options.

1. Fig

Figs often top lists in this regard, but they do seem a little more up for debate when it comes to what is said and what actually happens. Some commenters claim to have seen their fig leaves disappear—by deer—in a matter of days. Without a doubt, the smaller trees would be more susceptible and require protection.

2. Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo Biloba seems a pretty popular tree to grow here in North Carolina, and it is highly respected for its medicinal value, especially with regard to improving memory. For some reasons, deer seem to ignore the healthful advantages and skip out on it, though the nuts and leaves are edible. Ginkgo, an ancient species, is known for being extremely resistant to pests, even deer, and diseases.

3. Honey Locust

Since moving to North Carolina, I have become a major fan of black locust trees, which are widely regarded here for being great firewood and producing long-lasting, rot-resistant wood for fence posts and such. Honey locust offers a similar wood, is also a nitrogen-fixer, and unlike black locust, has edible pods and seeds. Deer aren’t too fussed over it.

4. Pawpaw

Pawpaw, though sometimes thought to be papaya, is not the same thing, at least not in the US. Pawpaw trees are actually producers of the largest edible fruit (from trees) native to North America. They are part of the custard apple clan. They grow in here in North Carolina, but their flavor hints at something much more tropical. Deer, however, don’t like them.

5. Persimmons

Persimmons also seem to be commonly listed tree for those struggling with growing in deer-y areas. My dad has one in his front yard in Texas, a spot which deer visit regularly, and he doesn’t seem to have any trouble. He has noted, though, that little foxes seem to enjoy gathering up the fallen fruits for a snack.

6. Sugar Maple

Here in the mountains of Western North Carolina, it is also possible to grow sugar maple trees, the same that are famed for making syrup. Apparently, deer don’t see what the fuss is all about. As for me, making syrup seems to be quite an arduous and energy-intensive process, but drinking the sap is said to be quite a treat.

Finished with Breakfast (Courtesy of Emma Gallagher)

Well, I definitely wouldn’t count on this group to provide my entire diet, but to be frank, I was pleasantly surprised with how much stuff was still possible without needing fencing. There is quite a diverse selection of deer-resistant things to eat. There are some nutritional superstars, like fresh culinary herbs, garlic, onions, and ginkgo biloba, and there are some delicious specialty crops, such as artichokes, rhubarb, and pawpaw. With over a dozen edibles to grow, that’s a hell of a start to a garden.

By all means, share your experiences in the comment section below, and even more so, let us know about any other plants that could or should have made the list.

Header Image: My Mama’s Garden (Courtesy of Emma Gallagher)

Jonathon Engels

The financially unfortunate combination of travel enthusiast, freelance writer, and vegan gardener, Jonathon Engels whittled and whistled himself into a life that gives him cause to continually scribble about it. He has lived as an expat for over a decade, worked in nearly a dozen countries, and visited dozens of others in the meantime, subjecting the planet to a fiery mix of permaculture, music, and plant-based cooking. More of his work can be found at Jonathon Engels: A Life About.


  1. Interesting. We’ve had deer (and rabbit) inroads into the garden here in WV, but have had some luck with hot peppers. Both growing the plants around more vulnerable vegetables, and sprinkling the ground peppers around the garden borders seems to have helped some.

  2. here in northern michigan,deer love to eat the onions and garlic that i try to grow, the new growth from every available maple tree. after the beginning of august, as the food in the forest becomes less palatable, and tougher to chew, the deer move in to the yard to eat the peony leaves, all the flowers they can find, rhododendron, mountain ash, whatever they can find and reach. if i want to keep it, i must put a strong fence around it. they have not touched the mature asparagas, but they love to eat the sprouts in spring. the first plant that grows for me is the rhubarb. they love to eat the leaves as soon as they become visible, until the leaves turn green, which they do not eat. the red leaves are lunch. and so it goes. thanks for an interesting list.

  3. It’s always an honour to be able to share our garden with wildlife. I reality, we are sharing their space. But it is also a challenge. Most of my challenges come from slaters and caterpillars. But I delight in seeing birds chirping from the maturing trees I planted years ago. And long neck turtles enjoying the winter water.

  4. Thanks for the article. Very useful as we begin our food farm on the West end of the island of Molokai, Hawaii. Any experience w/ deer and bamboo? We have Axis deer to contend with. Our initial stage is growing wind and drought tolerant clumping bamboos. Our concern is the deer while the bamboo are young.

    1. Molokai is the most beautiful place on Mother Earth! It has been my dream to live there for the better part of 20 years but it”s only a dream. How”s your gardens going and were you able to keep the deer away?

  5. Something ate the leaves off my small Gingko tree. I had assumed it was the deer. I’m in California, and this was during a drought, so they were desperate.

  6. When we moved to WA state about 6 years ago, the first thing that came up (volunteer) was a tulip. I saw the bud and thought there would be a flower in a day or two. The next morning, there was nothing but a stem. It seems most flowers are like dessert to the deer.
    In about 6 months we’ll be moving to a new house and 5 acres of land (on a hillside). There we will have to contend with deer, bears, cougars, coyotes, etc. – lots of wildlife. I would not mind sharing but they nearly always eat the good stuff. I’ve found the sprays with rotten egg in them work the best but you have to spray often. Fences will work if they’re tall enough – 8 feet +.

  7. The deer love our persimmons here in Maryland. Wish you were right, but at least you’re dad is having better luck.

    1. My Fuyu persimmon in California got stripped bare, grew back, and got stripped bare again last year. I haven’t had fruit yet. Now it’s fenced for protection. What I’ve found is newer plants get eaten regardless of the list; I thought maybe it has a better nutritional content as it was fresh from the grower.

  8. wallabies in nsw Australia eat plants also I have found they will not touch the lavender, they even eat the groundcover tough leaf local natives. will try persimmons and see what the outcome is…tks…richard

  9. Thanks for a few new ideas. Deer are a constant in my yard. Come fall they eat almost anything. Or should I say everything! Couple things they haven’t bothered are onions, leeks, nasturiums, marigolds, garlic and herbs. Every other vegetable and flower has been munched if not protected. Anyone know if kiwi are unattractive to deer?

    1. Kiwi should be raised on wires stretched between poles (kind of like clotheslines with the wires about 8-12 inches apart) and 8 feet off the ground. That way, the deer cannot stand on their hind legs and munch off all the fruits. In my neck of the woods, the deer can be very problematic, but they can’t reach 8 feet…now elk, that may be a different story, I don’t know.

  10. I moved from downtown DC to the MD suburbs this summer. I had grown Celeste and Brown Turkish figs in my yard in DC, and had an Armenian and two French varieties in large pots that I wintered in the garage. The very first night i was in my new house, deer ate every leaf off my Rhone de Bordeaux fig tree that was sitting on my front porch.

  11. Indian plum, purple leaf plum, blueberry, raspberry, currant, gooseberry, etc etc are also deer resistant. Deer don’t eat fig leaves, but they will break some fig branches for no obvious reasons. These bambi are evil.

    1. Au contraire. Deer will eat the hell out of fig leaves. See my previous post. They’ve also eaten every leaf off my Italian plum tree I planted this spring. I’m going to see if it comes back next spring; if it does, I plan to fence it to give it a chance to survive.

  12. Here in the SF Bay Area the deer eat everything I’ve found that is edible. I even had rhubarb for a while, but deer developed a taste for it, and even though they’d only eat about a third of a leaf a night, in short order the thing was stripped. Maybe if a plant is exceptionally thorny or completely toxic to deer but not people (ha!) they’d survive. Cactus?

  13. we live on the west side of Michigan in a medium sized urban area that has become overrun with deer in the past 15 years or so……so far there are a few things we can grow that they do not bother: boxwood, juniper, and most large decorative grasses, plus most herbs, russian sage and lavender
    what DO they eat? most any other thing we have tried to grow: annuals including nasturiums, geraniums, cosmos, zinnias, etc….evergreens: yew, holly, some fir trees, cedar, the juniper types that drape over borders,basic vegetables of any kind…..I use potted plants on my elevated deck, and we have started a medium sized garden area with a 6 foot fence that they have not jumped (so far) From other neighbors, it seems if you have a smaller area all fenced in you may not need 8 foot as they are at least smart enough to see they would be kind of trapped inside it (without being able to get a bit of a running start) I should have mentioned that they do not eat mature oak and maple trees….so frustrating :)

  14. Based on these comments, would conclude the deer aren’t reading this blog. Deer will munch on whatever they choose whenever they choose, and it just depends on relative attractiveness of available food sources. Some may be tastier to deer appetites than others, but unless highly prickly or toxic, any plant could be stripped of leaves.

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