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A Homemade Vegan Version of Natural & Organic Fertilizer

Featured Photo : Photo: Corn, Beans, Squash, Potatoes, Sweet Potatoes, Amaranth and Gardener

Last year I worked a couple of gardens with a friend/boss, Buck, who has been cultivating these spaces for decades. Though some of his techniques don’t jive with my permaculture sensibilities, such as tilling every year and walking in garden beds, on many things we were in lock-step. For example, once our seedlings had popped up a few inches high, we used leaves that had been piled the previous autumn to mulch the entire garden.

Up until then, I’d been dismayed with the amount of weeding we were doing each week. Once we’d applied the mulch, I asked why we’d not done it from the outset. Buck told me he preferred to keep a closer eye on the young seedlings—It was easier to amend the soil or address obvious issues without mulch being in the way—and thought of the early weeds, many of which were “chopped” into the soil, as nutrients for the plants. At the end of the growing season, he tilled the leaf-mulch into the garden to replace nutrients.

I have to admit, despite being a proponent of no-dig gardens and cultivating soil life (i.e. not killing it with a tiller), Buck’s technique had a lot about it that seemed sustainably conceived. Leaves had to be raked from the lawn and driveway (Buck is a caretaker for these properties) in the autumn; gardens had to be grown in spring. It made a lot of sense to me to do it this way. Other than adding a little soil enhancement to the hole when planting, the garden’s fertility was set-up to cyclically revive itself.

Learning as We Go

While taking care of these gardens with Buck, my wife Emma and I had been building our own lasagna gardens for annual crops. We’d planted kale, corn, tomatoes, chard, beets, carrots, peas, beans, sweet potatoes, potatoes, squashes, okra, cucumbers, nasturtium, arugula, borage, a mix of herbs, and several other things. Our spread was much more diverse than Buck’s, and we’d taken care to companion plant everything and worked on timed sequencing to boot. Suffice it to say, ours didn’t go quite as theory had dictated, but Buck’s at least felt as if it had.

We were pulling vegetables out of the tilled gardens sooner than our lasagna beds. Now, in terms of tomatoes and peppers, the answer was easy: He’d bought a few seedlings of each from a nursery rather than growing from seed as we had. (Though we’d started early enough to have had similarly sized seedlings, ours had sort of stunted after about a month. We’d also lost many to dampening off.)  More disturbingly, his squashes, green beans, and okra had rocketed past ours as well. In short, I still believed the no-dig gardens we’d made were going to be great, but Buck’s tilled beds, grown organically without gobs of help, were humming.

In the end, our gardens, of course, provided plenty. We eventually had cucumbers and summer squashes coming out of our ears. We stowed lots of okra away in the freezer. Green beans were good. Corn had largely been eaten by earworms, but we’d gotten plenty of the heritage beans we’d grown up the stalks and the autumn squashes spreading out below them. Root stuff was questionable for us and a complete wash for most folks because there was record amounts of rain. Because our gardens were raised, we did get potatoes, sweet potatoes, and radishes, but only a few pathetic carrots and beets.

A Daily Harvest, 2018

After some reflection on this, I’ve come up with some new theories—ideas we’ll be addressing this spring—as to why it happened:

  1. For one thing, our no-dig beds were brand new, meaning they should significantly improve in the years to come. Also, Buck’s mulching method would maintain fertility in his gardens and, despite the tilling, encourage soil life to establish. His method has been in the works for years, and I believe enhances the soil rather than depletes it.
  2. Having started seeds early, without a controlled climate for them, we’d perhaps done the plants (and ourselves) a disservice. Even inside our home, the temperature was below ideal for sowing. The squashes and cucumbers we planted later grew much faster and were way more productive.
  3. And, actually, this was all in route to discussing Buck’s little soil enhancements. One day at the nursery, Buck pointed out a general organic soil amendment to me and cited it as the secret to his success. When we planted, we’d put a scoop of it underneath either the seedling or the seeds. Sometimes this included a spoon of Epsom salt and/or lime, but everything got the mix.

Facing the Facts

I think a piece of me wants gardens so fertile that they don’t need amendments to grow gigantic plants heavy with nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. However, whatever techniques we use, that’s not exactly how it works: In his videos, Geoff Lawton is always feeding the soil with worm juice or the compost pile with minerals. Some measure of this just takes place in improving and maintaining soil. Of course, we can possibly do it more sustainably than always buying a bag of something, but utopian fertility doesn’t come solely from the right method for building garden beds. The work doesn’t end there. It only makes sense that we (organically) enhance the soil directly beneath our crops because they’ll be more productive.

The other issue is that my wife and I are vegan, unwilling to buy things like blood meal and bone meal, which typically come from industrial farming. We avoid purposely killing animals and/or supporting the factory farming of them. We do so without asking others to do the same but as a personal choice in our own lives. For example, I scooped and applied Buck’s mix for him without reservation and ate some the vegetables resulting from it. All of this is to say that, while it would have been easy enough to simply follow Buck’s lead on this, the organic mix he uses, for good reason, contains both blood and bone meal. As a result, we don’t want to buy it, and I’ve been looking for vegan alternatives to what these provide, hoping to make a homemade equivalent of the mix he uses.

What I’ve come up with is a mix of items we inevitably produce or have access to. Here are the components of the mix Emma and I are compiling over the winter, and we are planning to mix the coffee grounds and ash roughly equally, with the manure ideally being the same and bananas sprinkled in whatever amount they’ve materialized:

  • Coffee grounds. We are both coffee drinkers, despite it being imported, but we do buy organic, fair trade in effort to be more responsible about it. Coffee grounds, like blood meal, are rich in nitrogen and can be slightly acidic. It will hopefully provide the early growth thrust we are looking for. Plus, the grounds improve soil structure and encourage microbes. Alfalfa meal is a store-bought alternative, and it’s actually a listed component in Buck’s mix.
  • Wood ash. Because we heat and sometimes cook with wood, we produce quite a bit of wood ash, which can cautiously be used in gardens. It does increase alkalinity; however, being in the mountains and forests of western North Carolina, we have notedly acidic soil. Wood ash adds micronutrients to the mix, and a good percentage of calcium, a big part of why folks use bone meal and garden lime. It also has magnesium—like Epsom salt—to aid in nutrient absorption.
  • Banana peels. Like coffee, bananas are not locally sourced here, but we do still have them regularly. We make the effort of getting organic bananas and only buy them when they are on special and about to be thrown out by the supermarket. This is just another boost in nutrients and something to make the mix slightly more complex, i.e. diverse in its ingredients. Bananas peels are commonly recommended for directly applied soil enhancement as being a good source of potassium.
  • Manure. This is another tricky thing for us as animals are involved. However, we are planning to collect little bits of manure here and there. We live near equestrian trails, cow pastures, and lots of deer, so scrounging up a couple of buckets without buying it as a product, thus financially supporting the use of animals for industry, seems reasonable (again our choice, not a judgement on others). I think the coffee would be sufficient were this not an option.

Again, this is to put in the planting holes, not a general soil amendment. We will continue to add mulch and compost atop the soil for overall maintenance. This mix is in an effort to get that initial growth spurt that Buck’s plants seemed to get but ours lacked (or got to a lesser extent). We’ll also be using homemade foliar sprays, comfrey tea and such, to help them along this coming year.

Photo: Having Fun No Matter What

Verifying Such Thoughts

Aware of again working completely in the theoretical over experienced, at least in terms of a vegan approach to this amendment mix, I must admit that these thoughts are just thoughts. The mix hasn’t proven out effective and will be experimental, but I felt that the mindset was worth sharing. And, I’m interested in getting honest input into what we’re attempting with this fertilizer from those with more years of wisdom than I have. I don’t want to reinvent the wheel, but I do want to find a solution. And, I’m trying to do so without a product.

I’ve written about veganism on this site beforeand was—to put it in appropriately figurative terms—slaughtered for even bringing up the practice. (I should also note there was a lot of much-appreciated support.) As my previous article explains, I do understand the benefits of animal systems. Without getting into that again, suffice it to say that I know being vegan has increased the challenge of producing a self-sufficient garden and that most people don’t find the practice prudent. However, the advice I’m seeking is not regarding this lifestyle choice but how one might go about making a good, all-around soil amendment like Buck’s when faced with this challenge

Jonathon Engels

The financially unfortunate combination of travel enthusiast, freelance writer, and vegan gardener, Jonathon Engels whittled and whistled himself into a life that gives him cause to continually scribble about it. He has lived as an expat for over a decade, worked in nearly a dozen countries, and visited dozens of others in the meantime, subjecting the planet to a fiery mix of permaculture, music, and plant-based cooking. More of his work can be found at Jonathon Engels: A Life About.


  1. In terms of vegan permaculture, I’ve wondered if using your Humanure is a potential solution, using the correct methods from The Humanure Handbook. Thoughts?

  2. You may be vegan, but I can assure you the soil and soil microbes are not. I respect your choice not to eat meat, but since animals are being killed for food anyway, regardless of your choice, why not take advantage of the fabulous soil amendments that are thereby made available? I don’t see how that should compromise your principles. Wild animals die and decompose out in the wild, and the soil accepts and recycles their bodies. It’s the way Nature works. We will all die. There is no living without dying, no eating without killing, but we can choose to minimize suffering.

  3. Also, there are other ethical considerations besides just use of animal products or not. This presentation at the Ancestral Health Symposium is very eye-opening:
    Healthy Foods That Are Cruel: Social Justice in the Food Industry — Diana Rodgers (AHS14)
    She focuses on the conditions under which bananas, coffee and chocolate are produced, and vegans and omnivores alike are complicit if we don’t select very carefully. (I myself don’t eat bananas or chocolate anymore, and am phasing out coffee.) Of course, these aren’t the only problematic production chains, just some of the most ubiquitous. ALL food choices have consequences.
    If there are stables or other operations near you for whom excess manure is a problem, that should be a wonderful free resource for you to use. Again, the soil does not turn up its nose at animal flesh or bones. It’s called nutrient cycling, and thank goodness or we would have all been buried long ago.

    1. If you are vegan you are, generally, following a principle of minimising harm to animals. As such, to use the products derived from factory farming for example, is unethical. If your friends have animals that are well treated and aren’t exploited for money making purposes etc then using that manure is acceptable to many people who try to live with the vegan philosophy. Otherwise, yes it is compromising principles. It’s not much different from saying, these people over here are eating animals, so it won’t make any difference if I do. Or, these people are being exploited, I’m not directly involved and I can’t stop it immediately, so it doesn’t matter if I use the products they produce through exploitation. Cheers.

  4. Hmm, this is interesting – there are definitely two camps, dig or no dig. Every now and then I sway toward the other camp as an experiment. I recently converted my in ground garden beds to three raised beds. One is the perennial bed with black pepper, coffee and asparagus. the other one has mostly ginger and a few herbs. the remaining one was built as a sort of hughelkucture bed and has become a lasagne bed. we are in the wet season at the moment but It will be interesting to see the difference once I plant the beds out later this year.

  5. Good comments here. I add:
    Some of us (blood type 0s) need animal food to have healthy brains and properly functioning bodies.. It’s part of the natural cycle of human evolution. Others can survive well on veggies, but not Type O.
    Coralie is on to something for the other blood types.. Human manure, though vegetarian, might be a good boost for the garden, once composted. But I’d wonder at the efficacy of manure from vegetarians being all that helpful, when In nature there would be dead insects as well as birds, animal scraps left over from killer and scavenger animals. etc. Purity might be no virtue when nature demands something in the way of eventual contribution to the life cycle from every living creature.

    1. This set of claims about blood type and diet is scientifically unsound, and is based on myth. And, it’s been disproven–e.g., I’m type O and have been vegan for 30 plus years. Please don’t spread falsehood.

  6. I aspire to be vegan myself but feel feel vegans can do themselves and others a great disservice by the over the top, all or nothing approach. I myself use lots of cow manure from feedlots and have thought a lot about the ethics of it. The conclusion I have come to is to ask if more people used an animal product would that encourage more animals to be mistreated? In The case of cow manure, no one is going to keep cattle because of a high demand for cow manure and if no one used cow manure would less animals be mistreated? The answer is clearly no. To not use cow manure because of a belief that it somehow contributes to the mistreatment of animals is clearly an unjustified assumption. I also put road kill in my compost heap. So vegans, use your brain before you emotionally react against all animal products.

    1. If you are vegan, you want to minimise animal exploitation etc. Unless you are getting it for free, you are paying for a product that finances an industry that is inherently unethical (to put it mildly). If you are getting it for free, you are still using a product from an exploitative industry. So Gman, maybe take your sage advice and use your own brain, there are ethical principles involved that you clearly do not understand. Try pretending they are a group of humans being exploited instead, you might not be directly exploiting them, but using a product they’ve made is hardly ethical, is it?

  7. One reason your friends garden gets off to a fast start is because tilled, bare soils warm up a lot sooner in the Spring. Mulched or no dig soils are slow to warm up.

  8. We share a similar lifestyle choice and thus support and share your preference to not using farm animal manure. Our main reasoning, however, differs in that we prefer to do so to avoid the health dangers (to us) that are involved. Being in a very urban environment, the wild option is rather difficult. However, we might suggest worm composting as an alternative, which is (we are told) much more beneficial to soil life, than farm animal manure (even the organically raised animals).

  9. I’m also a vegan and conscious of what I buy. I brought in ducks because I had such an overwhelming slug and snail problem, there was no way I could grow my own food. So their poo is good and I buy a vegan, biodynamic food for them which they love more than anything other food (what’s this – you expect us to eat that, look?). I also have retired horses, so I use my own horse manure, duck poo, worm juice as my fertiliser beyond my compost.

  10. As a vegan gardener myself, I’ve wondered about good vegan blood and bone alternatives. Roadkill or free discarded animal parts from a butcher might be a good option for us, gory though it may be.. and we cold just home grind it with a big organ grinder a la Sweeney Todd. I’m not averted to gore.. just unnecessary animal suffering.

  11. We are veganic growers and I’m here to affirm you don’t need animal products for growing food crops. We have a thriving, successful farm using only plant material. The UK and the EU both have certified veganic produce. The US has been slow to change, but even USDA has recently highlighted veganic farms as a viable option for soil health in their monthly publication and we’re part of their NRCS grant program. Remember, 30 years ago people scoffed at organic growing as a fairytale hippies told. They said it could never be done large scale. I don’t have to tell you how wrong that was.
    Veganic growing a personal choice and it’s giving others that personal choice too. The animal by-products used in agriculture are not natural accruing like found in nature. They are from slaughter houses make up of whatever animal come through that week. It’s not just about people with a vegan diet. I have many customers who have religious restrictions on animal and/or the use of blood products. The world is vast and ag has been around for thousands of years, not all cultures have used animal products. We’ve adopted many of their practices.
    One other thing I am 100% sure of: our lettuce won’t be contaminated with ecoli!
    Happy growing, however that looks. We all have a world to feed and that’s the bottom line.

  12. This post is so timely! I was just pondering this issue myself after reading yesterday an otherwise excellent article that recommended “blood and bone” to fertilize my pear tree. Not only do I not want to buy slaughterhouse by-products, I also do not want any of the chemicals or hormones pumped into the animals. I’m even thinking of not buying anymore bagged manure for the same concerns. Thank you for writing on this topic and thank you for the nonjudgmental, helpful comments.

  13. Thanks! I’m 100% with you, but am not getting potatoes right. In general, my soil has matured and everything (including pernicious weeds) grows faster than I can keep up with (so has yours by now, I imagine), but I grow potatoes in pots. It’s tricky and fickle. What works one year doesn’t the next. I inherited a bag of bone meal so decided to just use it, but it didn’t improve the potatoes at all. I also use soy or cottonseed meal. I don’t feel great about either because I’m not sure I’m not supporting Monsanto, but we do our best. And I use lime because I’m growing, basically, in compost and leaf meal, sometimes with perlite and we live in the American Pacific Northwest – very acid. I’d love to see more about your journey–where should I look? Your website seems to be gone.

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