Small, husk wearing, fuzzy leaved little gems, these golden cherry tomato looking fruits may be one of the lesser known members of the nightshade family. However, once discovered you won’t forget their sweet, tart pineapple-mango-strawberry-tomato cross taste. This charming little member of the Physalis genus, which includes other husk covered fruits such as tomatillos and Chinese lanterns, are a delight to grow in the garden and enjoy in the kitchen.
The World Traveler
The ground cherry (Physalis peruviana) is commonly called the Cape Gooseberry, Goldenberry, Husk Cherry, Husk Tomato, or sometimes the Poha, Poha Berry. This many named fruit is believed to have originated in Brazil, spreading to other areas of South America. By the 18th-century, ground cherries were wildly grown and utilized in South Africa near the Cape of Good Hope, which inspired the name Cape Gooseberry. The fruit soon found its way to Australia where it quickly spread as a wild plant. In the early part of the 19th century, the ground cherry was introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands. In the 20th century, this fascinating little fruit showed up in the continental U.S. and continues to grow in popularity worldwide.
Whether you are living in the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Cod, you can take a crack at cultivating these captivating calyx covered cuties. To do so, plant in full sun, although partial shade will do, in soil that’s well-drained and anywhere in the pH range of 5 – 8. Planting of seedlings should begin 2 weeks after the last expected frost date in your area, and after seedlings have been hardened. Ground cherries can be planted at the same time you plant your tomatoes or tomatillos. If planting seeds, start indoors 6 weeks prior to the last frost date and in soil that is consistently over 70°F.
When planting seedlings space them at least 4’ apart, because while these prolific plants may not grow very tall, they do love to sprawl, hence the name “ground” cherries. As the plants begin to grow, keep the soil moist, especially prior to flowering. However, do not overwater as this can lead to fungal growth and rot. Ground cherries are abundant and hardy growers, requiring little maintenance, and even tolerant of and do well in pots.
As ground cherries mature they will develop small yellow colored flowers with brown centers that transform into the harvestable fruit. The fruit is usually ready to harvest mid to late summer and is considered ripe when the husks have turned from green to tan and the fruit falls from the plant, no picking required. Once your fruit begins to ripen begin checking your plants and harvesting nearly every day because ground cherries are indeterminate growers and will produce copious amounts of fruit until frost sets in.
A note of caution: Because ground cherries are nightshades they contain solanine and other solanidine alkaloids. These are considered toxins and can be found in lethal levels in the unripe fruit and leaves of the ground cherry. Do NOT allow consumption of the unripe fruit or the leaves of the ground cherry plant by any humans, livestock, or pets.
Your plants will need to be checked for cutworms and spider mites. If you discover cutworms pick them off by hand and drop them into soapy water. It’s best to do this at night using a flashlight. To prevent cutworms sprinkle spent coffee grounds and/or eggshells around your plants or try using diatomaceous earth circled around your plants. Attracting fireflies and birds to your garden can help control cutworm populations, as can keeping your garden neat and tidy. Mulching with oak leaves and also planting tansy can ward off cutworms.
Spider mites feed on the underside of leaves, so if possible, infected leaves should be removed. For those that cannot be removed, dislodge the mites with a hose fitted with a spray nozzle. You can also spray the plants with a mixture of rosemary essential oil and water or with soapy water, but do NOT do this is the plant is stressed or dehydrated, or during the heat of the day. Encouraging beneficial insects and spiders to populate your garden can help control mite populations.
Oh the Goodness!
The ground cherry isn’t just delicious it’s also nutritious. In one cup (140 grams) the ground cherry offers 74 calories, 1 gram of fat, 3 grams of protein, and 16 grams of carbohydrates (4 grams of which is dietary fiber). The ground cherry is an excellent source of Vitamins A, C, and B-3 (Niacin). They are also a good source of Vitamins B-1 (Thiamin) and offer Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin) and the minerals non-heme iron, calcium, and phosphorus.
Due to the orange-golden color from phytochemicals called carotenoids, the ground cherry has many anti-inflammatory and immune boosting properties and can help protect against the risk of heart disease and poor eye, skin, and bone health. Ground cherries also contain phytochemical compounds called withanolides. Withanolides exhibit significant biological activities such as acting as an antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory agent. Withanolides have displayed the ability to suppress the growth of many types of tumor cells, through apoptosis, in cancers such as breast, pancreatic, prostate, lung, leukemia, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. With the antioxidant properties from its vitamin and mineral composition plus its phytochemical composition, the ground cherry is an amazing fruit that can boost overall health.
If you want to enjoy the flavor and nutrition ground cherries offer, you can simply (once they are fully ripened) harvest them, remove their papery calyx, wash them, and pop them right into your mouth. Their sweet tartness is amazing all on its own! Ground cherries also make great preserves and as chocolate covered desserts! If you would like to create a delectable side (or perhaps main) dish to dine on, try this delightful recipe:
Ground Cherry and Fig Salad
10 ground cherries, husked removed, washed and halved
6 fresh figs, coarsely chopped
1 cucumber, coarsely chopped
1 small red onion, cut into thin slices
¼ cup fresh mint, torn into pieces
4 tablespoons olive oil
3 tablespoons pomegranate infused balsamic vinegar
Salt and freshly ground pepper to taste
Combine all ingredients in a large bowl
Toss until well combined
Chill for at least 30 minutes
Serve and enjoy!
This is a light refreshing salad that’s perfect for the summer. When making this salad be imaginative! You can add basil leaves instead of mint, use dates if you can’t find figs, add some mozzarella cheese if you’d like, or mix and match other vegetables and fruit into the salad to whatever suits your palate. This is your salad, get creative!
If you’re as intrigued by this lovely fruiting nightshade as I am, then it’s a must have in your garden and kitchen. Plant, grow, and harvest this captivating crop and reap the many nutritional benefits and the enjoyment of its unparalleled taste. Be cautious of the ground cherries unripe fruits and leaves, but enjoy its easy growing style and appreciate all this most unique and charming plant has to offer.
Morton, J. 1987. Purdue University. Fruits of warm climates. Cape Gooseberry. Physalis peruviana L. Physalis edulis Sims. p. 430–434. https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/cape_gooseberry.html
North Carolina State University Extension. College of Agriculture & Life Sciences. North Carolina State University. Physalis spp. https://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/plants/all/physalis-spp/
I have grown these for years. They are prolific, low care, and seriously addictive in terms of flavor and texture. No problems with fungal diseases right next to tomatoes that were turning to slime overnight. They do spread but I have managed to get low crops to do well underneath them.
Ground cherries are seriously delicious! Haven’t grown them myself but get them at our local farmer’s market. I’m surprised these haven’t become a popular “gourmet” item, yet. While I appreciate the recipe, I never seem to bring enough home to ever use it.
I have had four of these prolific and triffid like beauties growing in the corner of my greenhouse for the last six years, I just cut them down to about ten inches when they stop producing – around Christmas – and back they come in early spring. I’ve had hundreds of pounds of fruit over the years and being by the door of the greenhouse they make a delicious snack every time I go in! They also make lovely jam and a wonderful fruit toffee.
Those Ground Cherries are easy to grow, even in Canada. I discovered that when you mix them with cucumbers and you have an invasion of cucumber-beetles the cucumber-beetles stay on the Ground Cherries and are not interested in the cucumbers.
Cucumber-beetles are a mayor problem for cucumber growers as they lay their eggs into the soil and feast on the roots and latter devastate the crop mostly by spreading fungal diseases. Polyculture is the answer, just mix as many plants as you can fit in by using the different levels like root-crops, lettuces, ground cherries (mid-level) and cucumbers (high on trellises).
Ground Cherries get quite damaged by the cucumber beetles but they grow so vigorous that I always have a harvest from them. In fact they seed themselves every year.
The eggs and larva of the cucumber beetles don’t survive usually a cover crop of mustard greens like Mizuna which are great and some what frost hardy as well as delicious. Mizuna is also great for spring as it is the first to germinate before the other weeds do and if sown thick will suppress weeds before you plant a summer crop.
You are all so correct in saying that ground cherries are delicious and prolific. They are so delightful. I wonder why too they don’t seem more popular. In fact I have never seen them at local our farmer’s markets.
It’s so nice to hear that there were no problems with fungal disease and how they can help out cucumbers. They really do seem like one amazing fruit to be growing in the garden.
If any of you have more gardening and pests tips please let me know! Also any recipes are much appreciated…especially that fruit toffee one, Mandie!
Thank you all so much for reading and posting!
I think it’s due to the toxic aspect of an under ripe fruit or stray branch that keeps the from being sold on a mass market..especially when most vegetables and fruit are picked young to be ripe by market. To much liability issues.
I have ground cherries growing in my backyard, and some of the ripen fruit has small brown marks on it. Does anyone know what causes this?
I disagree with the idea that they need to be 4′ apart. I’ve grown them in different settings and conditions and found I got the highest productivity by planting them on an 8″ grid. 36 plants in a 4’X5′ area yields us 8-10 US gallons of ground cherries. In Michigan, USA. I throw down a piece of cardboard, wet it, then drill holes through with a garden auger so I can stick the plants in. No special fertilizing beyond what I would give tomatoes or peppers.
This year my ground cherries were heavily affected by cucmber beetles, but still managed to grow to an incredible size and yield lots of fruit. However, I’ve found tiny white worms inside many of the ground cherries that I’ve harvested. Does anyone know what these tiny worms are?
does anyone know if my ground cherries can be eaten green but ripe?? per the article my husk turned brown and they dropped to the ground. so i assumed that meant they were ripe but every single one is solid green without a hint of the golden color mentioned in all. articles so far
I’ve also had this same issue. I did eat one and it tasted fine, but everything I read says toxic so now I’m worried
I’ve read that it’s best to pick them up and set them on the counter in a bowl to ripen for 10 – 14 days or so until they are true orange. Everything I’ve read said to not eat them green. First time planting them I didn’t know that [because it was never mentioned] and ate a couple still 100% green just bc I was curious. And I didn’t die. But I wouldn’t do that again now that I know…
Golly, The Green ones are toxic if you eat too many. Google search and you’ll find explanation, that’s what I did when I first discovered a ground cherry.
We have an abundance of volunteer ground cherry plants in our yard, and have been eating them for several years now. They should be eaten when ripe, not green. You are correct about the toxicity of the unripened fruit and the leaves. When they fall off the plant, I collect them and spread them out on a piece of cardboard on our screened-in porch. I do not peel (“un-husk”) them until I’m ready to use them. This way, the green ones continue to ripen and the others just wait to be eaten. I’ve let them sit this way for up to 2 or 3 weeks before using them. Given that they are the gift that keeps on giving, I’ve even frozen some in zip-lock bags and made pies or muffins or salsa (or whatever) mid-winter. Enjoy them!
I never heard of ground cherries until today. We found a little Amish place selling baked goods and found a ground cherry pie. DELICIOUS!!!